NOTES FORMING PART OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Lupin Limited, ('the Company') incorporated in 1983, is an innovation led Transnational Pharmaceutical Company producing, developing and marketing a wide range of branded and generic formulations, biotechnology products and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) globally. The Company has significant brsence in the Cardiovascular, Diabetology, Asthma, Pediatrics, Central Nervous System, Gastro-intestinal, Anti-Infectives and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug therapy segments and is a global leader in the Anti-TB and Cephalosporins segments. The Company along with its subsidiaries has manufacturing locations sbrad across India, Japan, USA, Mexico and Brazil with trading and other incidental and related activities extending to the global markets.
B. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES:
a) Basis of accounting and brparation of Financial Statements:
The financial statements of the Company have been brpared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards specified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the 2013 Act") and the relevant provisions of the 2013 Act / Companies Act, 1956 ("the 1956 Act"), as applicable. The financial statements have been brpared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention. The accounting policies adopted in the brparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the brvious year.
b) Use of Estimates:
The brparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in brparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known / materialise.
c) Tangible Fixed Assets:
Fixed Assets are carried at cost less accumulated debrciation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of fixed assets includes interest on borrowings attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use and other incidental expenses incurred up to that date. The Company has adopted the provisions of paragraph 46A of AS-11 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates", accordingly, exchange differences arising on restatement / settlement of long-term foreign currency borrowings relating to acquisition of debrciable fixed assets are adjusted to the cost of the respective assets and debrciated over the remaining useful life of such assets. Subsequent expenditure relating to fixed assets is capitalised only if such expenditure results in an increase in the future benefits from such asset beyond its brviously assessed standard of performance.
Capital work-in-progress in respect of assets which are not ready for their intended use are carried at cost, comprising of direct costs, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.
d) Intangible Assets:
Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an intangible asset comprises its purchase price, including any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities), and any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use.
Expenditure on research and development eligible for capitalisation are carried as Intangible assets under development where such assets are not yet ready for their intended use.
e) Foreign Currency Transactions / Translations:
i) Transactions denominated in foreign currency are recorded at exchange rates brvailing at the date of transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.
ii) Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company, outstanding at the Balance Sheet date are restated at the year-end rates. Non-monetary items of the Company are carried at historical cost.
iii) Exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of short-term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company and its integral foreign operations are recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
The exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of long-term foreign currency monetary items are capitalised as part of the debrciable fixed assets to which the monetary item relates and debrciated over the remaining useful life of such assets. If such monetary items do not relate to acquisition of debrciable fixed assets, the exchange difference is amortised over the maturity period / upto the date of settlement of such monetary items, whichever is earlier, and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss except in case of exchange differences arising on net investment in non-integral foreign operations, where such amortisation is taken to "Foreign currency translation reserve" until disposal / recovery of the net investment. The unamortised exchange difference is carried under Reserves and Surplus as "Foreign currency monetary item translation difference account" net of the tax effect thereon, where applicable.
iv) Premium / discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortised over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the Balance Sheet date. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such a forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense in the period in which such cancellation or renewal is made.
v) In respect of foreign offices, which are integral foreign operations, all revenues and expenses during the year are reported at average rates. Outstanding balances in respect of monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end exchange rates. Outstanding balances in respect of non-monetary assets and liabilities are stated at the rates brvailing on the date of the transaction. Net gain / loss on foreign currency translation is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. The Company designates such forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles set out in Accounting Standard 30 (AS-30) "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement". These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in "Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account" under Reserves and Surplus, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Amounts accumulated in the "Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account" are reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the same period during which the forecasted transaction affects profit and loss. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in "Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account" is retained until the forecasted transaction occurs. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in "Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account" is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.
) Derivative Contracts:
The Company enters into derivative contracts in the nature of currency options, forward contracts and currency futures with an intention to hedge its existing assets and liabilities and highly probable forecast transactions in foreign currency. Derivative contracts which are closely linked to the existing assets and liabilities are accounted as per the policy stated for Foreign Currency Transactions / Translations.
Derivative contracts designated as a hedging instrument for highly probable forecast transactions are accounted as per the policy stated for Hedge Accounting.
The gain or loss in respect of currency futures contracts, the pricing period of which has expired or squared off during the year are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. In respect of contracts outstanding as at the year end, losses, if any, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognised, until realised, on grounds of prudence.
All other derivative contracts are marked-to-market on a portfolio basis and losses, if any, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognised, until realised, on grounds of prudence.
Long-term investments are carried individually at cost, less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments.
Current investments are carried individually at lower of cost and fair value.
Cost of investments includes expenses directly incurred on acquisition of such investments.
Inventories of all procured materials and Stock-in-Trade are valued at the lower of cost (on moving weighted average basis) and the net realisable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Cost includes all charges in bringing the goods to their brsent location and condition, including octroi and other levies, transit insurance and receiving charges. Work-in-process and finished goods include appropriate proportion of overheads and, where applicable, excise duty.
) Revenue Recognition:
Revenue from sale of goods is recognised net of returns, product expiry claims and trade discounts, on transfer of significant risks and rewards in respect of ownership to the buyer. Sales include excise duty but exclude sales tax and value added tax. Sales are also netted off for probable non-saleable return of goods from the customers, estimated on the basis of historical data of such returns.
Income from research services including sale of technology / know-how (rights, licenses, dossiers and other intangibles) is recognised in accordance with the terms of the contract with customers when the related performance obligation is completed, or when risks and rewards of ownership are transferred, as applicable.
Revenue is recognised when it is reasonable to expect that the ultimate collection will be made.
Interest income is accounted on accrual basis. Dividend from investments is recognised as revenue when right to receive is established.
Debrciation and Amortisation:
Debrciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value.
Debrciation on tangible fixed assets of the Company has been provided on the straight-line method as per the useful life brscribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed as under based on independent technical evaluation and management's assessment thereof, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc.:
Employee benefits include provident fund, superannuation fund, gratuity fund and compensated absences.
i) Defined Contribution Plans:
The Company's contribution to provident fund and superannuation fund for certain eligible employees are considered as defined contribution plans as the Company does not carry any further obligations, apart from the contributions made on a monthly basis. Such contributions are charged as an expense to the Statement of Profit and Loss based on the amount of contribution required to be made and when services are rendered by the employees.
ii) Defined Benefit Plans:
For defined benefit plan in the form of gratuity fund, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.
The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet rebrsents the brsent value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of plan assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the brsent value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the scheme.
Provident Fund for certain employees is administered through the "Lupin Limited Employees Provident Fund Trust". Periodic contributions to the Fund are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investment of the trust and interest rate notified by the Government of India.
iii) Short-Term Employee Benefits:
The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service.
The cost of short-term compensated absences is accounted as under:
a. in case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render the services that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and
b. in case of non-accumulating compensated absences, when the absences occur.
iv) Long-Term Employee Benefit:
The cost of compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur.
m) Taxes on Income:
Tax expense comprises both Current Tax and Deferred Tax. Current tax is the amount of tax payable on taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the applicable tax rates and the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 and other applicable tax laws.
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is highly probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.
Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets for timing differences in respect of unabsorbed debrciation, carry forward of losses and items relating to capital losses are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such assets. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of other items only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their realisability.
Current and deferred tax relating to items directly recognised in reserves are recognised in reserves and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Assets taken on lease under which all risks and rewards of ownership are effectively retained by the lessor are classified as operating lease. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term in accordance with the respective lease agreement terms.
Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets:
A provision is recognised when the Company has a brsent obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their brsent value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes. Contingent liabilities are disclosed for (1) possible obligations which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the Company or (2) brsent obligations arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made. Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements.
p) Borrowing Costs:
Borrowing costs include interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent not directly related to the acquisition of qualifying assets are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the tenure of the loan. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilised for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset upto the date of capitalisation of such asset is added to the cost of the assets. Capitalisation of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.
q) Stock based Compensation:
i) Employees Stock Option Plans ("ESOPs"):
The compensation cost of stock options granted to employees is measured by the intrinsic value method, i.e. the difference between the market price of the Company's shares on the date of the grant of options and the exercise price to be paid by the option holders. The compensation cost, if any, is amortised on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the options.
ii) Stock Apbrciation Rights ("SARs"):
The compensation cost of SARs granted to employees is measured by the intrinsic value method, i.e. the excess of the market price of the Company's shares as at the period end and the acquisition price as on the date of grant. The compensation cost is amortised on a straight line basis over the vesting period of the SARs.
r) Government Grants, subsidies and export incentives:
Government grants and subsidies are accounted when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and it is reasonably certain that the ultimate collection will be made. Capital grants relating to specific fixed assets are reduced from the gross value of the respective fixed assets. Revenue grants are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Export benefits available under brvalent schemes are accrued in the year in which the goods are exported and there is no uncertainty in receiving the same.
s) Research and Development:
Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year it is incurred, unless a product's technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised. These costs are charged to the respective heads in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year it is incurred. The amount capitalised comprises of expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis for creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Fixed assets utilised for research and development are capitalised and debrciated in accordance with the policies stated for Tangible Fixed Assets and Intangible Assets.
t) Impairment of Assets:
The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment if any indication of impairment exists. The following intangible assets are tested for impairment each financial year even if there is no indication that the asset is impaired:
(a) an intangible asset that is not yet available for use; and
(b) an intangible asset that is amortised over a period exceeding ten years from the date when the asset is available for use.
If the carrying amount of the assets exceed the estimated recoverable amount, an impairment is recognised for such excess amount. The impairment loss is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount, in which case any impairment loss of the revalued asset is treated as a revaluation decrease to the extent a revaluation reserve is available for that asset.
The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their brsent value based on an appropriate discount factor.
When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset (other than a revalued asset) in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, to the extent the amount was brviously charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. In case of revalued assets, such reversal is not recognised.
Earnings per share:
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that the amount recoverable can be measured reliably and it is reasonable to expect the ultimate collection.
v) Service tax input credit:
Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books in the period in which the underlying service received is accounted and when there is reasonable certainty in availing / utilising the credits.
Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.
1. Employees Stock Option Plans:
a) The Company implemented "Lupin Employees Stock Option Plan 2003" (ESOP 2003), "Lupin Employees Stock Option Plan 2005" (ESOP 2005), "Lupin Subsidiary Companies Employees Stock Option Plan 2005" (SESOP 2005), "Lupin Employees Stock Option Plan 2011" (ESOP 2011), "Lupin Subsidiary Companies Employees Stock Option Plan 2011" (SESOP 2011), "Lupin Employees Stock Option Plan 2014" (ESOP 2014) and "Lupin Subsidiary Companies Employees Stock Option Plan 2014" (SESOP 2014) in earlier years, as approved by the Shareholders of the Company and the Remuneration / Compensation / Nomination and Remuneration Committee of the Board of Directors. Details of the options granted during the year under the plans are as under
Stock Apbrciation Rights:
During the years 2011-12 and 2012-13, the Company granted Stock Apbrciation Rights ["SARs"] to certain eligible employees in accordance with Lupin Employees Stock Apbrciation Rights Scheme 2011 ["LESARs 2011"] approved by the Board of Directors [Board] at their Board Meeting held on September 13, 2011. Under the Scheme, eligible employees are entitled to receive apbrciation in value of shares on completion of the vesting period.
The Scheme is administered through the Lupin Employees Benefit Trust [the "Trust"] as settled by the Company. The Trust is administered by an independent Trustee. At the end of the vesting period of 3 years, the equity shares will be sold in the market by the Trust and the apbrciation on the same [if any] will be distributed to the said employees, subject to vesting conditions.
The Company has been submitting required details with stock exchanges in terms of the circulars issued by SEBI in this regard. During the brvious year, SEBI vide its circular no. CIR/CFD/POLICYCELL/3/2014 dated June 27, 2014 had extended the timelines for alignment of the Scheme till the new regulations are notified, continuing the prohibition on acquiring securities from the secondary market.
The new regulation viz: Securities and Exchange Board of India [Share Based Employee Benefits] Regulations, 2014 ['the Regulation'] was notified on October 28, 2014, pursuant to which the existing schemes are to be aligned within one year of the effective date of the Regulation. During the year, the Trust has distributed the benefits of SARs to the eligible employees in terms of LESARs 2011 and has not acquired any shares from the secondary market.
As approved by the Board, the Company had, prior to the SEBI circular no. CIR/CFD/DIL/3/2013 dated January 17, 2013 advanced an interest free loan to the Trust during the years 2011-12 and 2012-13 to acquire appropriate number of Equity Shares of the Company from the market on the grant date of SARs and the loan outstanding as at the Balance Sheet date aggregating to Rs. nil (brvious year Rs. 251.3 million) is included under "Short-Term Loans and Advances
1. Post Employment Benefits:
(i) Defined Contribution Plans:
The Company makes contributions towards provident fund and superannuation fund to a defined contribution retirement benefit plan for qualifying employees. The superannuation fund is administered by the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC). Under the plan, the Company is required to contribute a specified percentage of payroll cost to the retirement benefit plan to fund the benefits.
The Company recognised Rs. 179.0 million (brvious year Rs. 165.5 million) for superannuation contribution and Rs.199.9 million (brvious year Rs. 147.5 million) for provident fund and pension contributions in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
(ii) Defined Benefit Plan:
A) The Company makes annual contributions to the Group Gratuity cum Life Assurance Schemes administered by the LIC, a funded defined benefit plan for qualifying employees. The scheme provides for payment as under:
a) On normal retirement / early retirement / withdrawal / resignation:
As per the provisions of the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 with vesting period of 5 years of service.
b] On death in service:
As per the provisions of the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 without any vesting period.
In addition to the above mentioned scheme, the Company also pays additional gratuity as an ex-gratia and the said amount is provided as non-funded liability based on actuarial valuation.
The most recent actuarial valuation of plan assets and the brsent value of the defined benefit obligation for gratuity were carried out as at March 31, 2016. The brsent value of the defined benefit obligations and the related current service cost and past service cost, were measured using the Projected Unit Credit Method.
B) The provident fund plan of the Company, except at two plants, is operated by "Lupin Limited Employees Provident Fund Trust" (the "Trust"). Eligible employees receive benefits from the said Provident Fund. Both the employees and the Company make monthly contributions to the Provident Fund Plans equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee's salary. The minimum interest rate payable by the Trust to the beneficiaries every year is being notified by the Government of India. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of the Trust and the notified interest rate.
The ASB Guidance on Implementing AS-15, Employee Benefits (revised 2005) issued by Accounting Standards Board (ASB) states that benefit plans involving employer established provident funds, which require interest shortfalls to be recompensed are to be considered as defined benefit plans. As per the Guidance Note from the Actuarial Society of India, the Company has obtained the actuarial valuation of interest rate obligation in respect of Provident Fund as at March 31, 2016 and based on the same, there is no shortfall towards interest rate obligation. The Company has an obligation to service the shortfall on account of interest generated by the fund and on maturity of fund investments and hence the same has been classified as Defined Benefit Plan.
The Company recognised Rs. 281.8 million (brvious year Rs. 266.4 million) for provident fund contributions in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
2. Excise duty [Refer note 28] includes Rs. 74.2 million [brvious year Rs. 32.9 million] being net impact of the excise duty provision on opening and closing stock.
3. No borrowing cost has been capitalised during the year.
4. Previous year's figures have been regrouped / reclassified wherever necessary to correspond with the current year's classification / disclosure.
For and on behalf of Board of Directors of Lupin Limited
Dr. Desh Bandhu Gupta
Managing Director DIN:01734642
Dr. K. U. Mada
Dr. Kamal K. Sharma
Chief Financial Officer & Executive Director DIN:01833346
Dileep C. Choksi
R. V. Satam
ACS - 11973
Chief Executive Officer
R. A. Shah
Jean Luc Belingard
Place : Mumbai
Dated : May 19, 2016